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English academic papers







示例:Insulin and glucagon regulates blood glucose levels.


示例:An elevated glucose level indicates a lack of glucagon hormones in the pancreas.


示例:Further studies about glucagon receptors are needed.

2. 一般过去时(简单过去时)





  • 示例:Scientists in Wales discovered a new enzyme in the liver.

  • 示例:Protocol X was used to analyze the data.





  • 示例:Many studies have focused on glucagon as an important regulating hormone.

  • 示例:Until recently, researchers have analyzed this kind of data using a Chi- Square Statistic.

  • 示例:Efforts have been made to understand more about this process.


4.1 摘要(摘要) 在摘要中,通常使用一般现在时或现在完成时,以简明扼要地介绍研究目的、方法、结果和结论。

  • 一般过去时的示例:In 2016, diabetes was the most common endocrine disease.

  • 一般现在时的示例:In the US, diabetes is the most common endocrine disease.

  • 一般现在时的示例:Diabetes accounts for a higher number of deaths in the US than previously calculated.

  • 现在完成时的示例:Recent studies of glucagon and insulin production have led to breakthroughs in medicine.

4.2 引言(Introduction) 引言部分通常使用一般现在时和一般过去时。一般现在时用于介绍研究领域、现有知识或理论;一般过去时用于描述先前研究的背景和问题。

  • 一般过去时的示例(描述过去的工作):This same research team discovered a similar enzyme in their 2012 study.

  • 一般过去时的示例:The CalTech glucagon studies were inconclusive.

  • 一般过去式的示例(使用人名作为句子的主语,描述研究结果):Pearson (1997) discovered a new enzyme using similar methods.

  • 类似的其他动词包括:investigated, compared, studied, analyzed, investigated, found, confirmed, performed。

  • 一般现在时的示例(评论过去的研究工作或提到过去研究中发现的科学真理):Ryuku (2005) concludes that there are no additional enzymes present in the liver, a finding this current study directly refutes.

  • 类似的其他动词包括:stresses, advocates, remarks, argues, claims, posits。

  • 现在完成时的示例(当研究工作的日期不明确或不重要时):Prior research has indicated a correlation between X and Y.

  • 现在完成时的示例:Prior research in this area has been inconclusive.

  • 过去完成时的示例(强调截止到过去的某个时间已经发生的事情):The Dublonsky study had determined that X was Y, but a 2012 study found this to be incorrect.

4.3 方法(Method) 方法部分通常使用一般过去时,描述研究设计、实验步骤和数据收集方法。

  • 一般过去时的示例(描述过去的操作动作):A glucose molecule was added to the mixture to see how the peptide would respond.

  • 一般过去时的示例(描述过去的操作动作):The results were analyzed using Bayesian inference.

4.4 结果(Result) 结果部分通常使用一般过去时和现在完成时,报告已完成的实验结果和数据分析。

  • 一般过去时的示例(描述过去偶然发生的科学现象,主动语态):The addition of 0.02 μg of glycogen activated receptor cells.

  • 一般过去时的示例(描述过去偶然发生的科学现象,被动语态):Receptor cells were activated by the addition of 0.02μg of glycogen.

  • 一般现在时的示例(提及图表,主动语态):Table 5 shows the results of this first isolated test.

  • 一般现在时的示例(提及图表,被动语态):The results of this first isolated test are displayed in Table 5.

4.5 讨论(Discussion) 讨论部分通常使用一般现在时和现在完成时,分析结果并就此进行解释、比较或评价。

  • 一般过去时的示例(总结科研发现):The experiment yielded a number of results associated with the processing of glucose.

  • 一般现在时的示例(解释和讨论科研发现的重要性):This study confirms that synthetic glucagon is two-thirds as effective at decreasing fatty acid synthesis.

4.6 结论与未来工作(Conclusions and future work) 结论部分通常使用一般现在时和现在时完成,总结研究结果并提出未来研究方向或建议。

  • 一般现在时的示例:This study confirms that endogenous glucagon is even more essential in metabolism than previously thought.

  • 现在完成时的示例:Results from this study have led to a deeper understanding about how different peptides interact in this enzyme.

  • 一般现在时、一般将来时或假设语气的示例:Further clinical studies are needed/will be needed/must be carried out/should be carried out to isolate the cause of this reaction.